git fetch [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]] git fetch [<options>] <group> git fetch --multiple [<options>] [(<repository> | <group>)...] git fetch --all [<options>]
Fetch branches and/or tags (collectively, "refs") from one or more other repositories, along with the objects necessary to complete their histories. Remote-tracking branches are updated (see the description of <refspec> below for ways to control this behavior).
By default, any tag that points into the histories being fetched is also fetched; the effect is to fetch tags that point at branches that you are interested in. This default behavior can be changed by using the --tags or --no-tags options or by configuring remote.<name>.tagOpt. By using a refspec that fetches tags explicitly, you can fetch tags that do not point into branches you are interested in as well.
git fetch can fetch from either a single named repository or URL, or from several repositories at once if <group> is given and there is a remotes.<group> entry in the configuration file. (See git-config(1)).
When no remote is specified, by default the origin remote will be used, unless there's an upstream branch configured for the current branch.
The names of refs that are fetched, together with the object names they point at, are written to .git/FETCH_HEAD. This information may be used by scripts or other git commands, such as git-pull(1).
If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so that the current repository has the same history as the source repository.
See the PRUNING section below for more details.
See the PRUNING section below for more details.
The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by the source <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>. The colon can be omitted when <dst> is empty. <src> is typically a ref, but it can also be a fully spelled hex object name.
tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.
The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>. If the optional plus + is used, the local ref is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.
In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.
Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and ftps can be used for fetching, but this is inefficient and deprecated; do not use it).
The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and should be used with caution on unsecured networks.
The following syntaxes may be used with them:
An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:
This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute path or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.
The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:
For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following syntaxes may be used:
These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.
When Git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:
where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked. See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.
If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration section of the form:
[url "<actual url base>"] insteadOf = <other url base>
For example, with this:
[url "git://git.host.xz/"] insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/ insteadOf = work:
a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".
If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a configuration section of the form:
[url "<actual url base>"] pushInsteadOf = <other url base>
For example, with this:
[url "ssh://example.org/"] pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/
a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still use the original URL.
The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as <repository> argument:
All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.
You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The entry in the config file would appear like this:
[remote "<name>"] url = <url> pushurl = <pushurl> push = <refspec> fetch = <refspec>
The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to <url>.
You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. This file should have the following format:
URL: one of the above URL format Push: <refspec> Pull: <refspec>
Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.
You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file should have the following format:
<url> is required; #<head> is optional.
Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs, if you don't provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.
git fetch uses:
git push uses:
You often interact with the same remote repository by regularly and repeatedly fetching from it. In order to keep track of the progress of such a remote repository, git fetch allows you to configure remote.<repository>.fetch configuration variables.
Typically such a variable may look like this:
[remote "origin"] fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
This configuration is used in two ways:
The latter use of the remote.<repository>.fetch values can be overridden by giving the --refmap=<refspec> parameter(s) on the command line.
Git has a default disposition of keeping data unless it's explicitly thrown away; this extends to holding onto local references to branches on remotes that have themselves deleted those branches.
If left to accumulate, these stale references might make performance worse on big and busy repos that have a lot of branch churn, and e.g. make the output of commands like git branch -a --contains <commit> needlessly verbose, as well as impacting anything else that'll work with the complete set of known references.
These remote-tracking references can be deleted as a one-off with either of:
# While fetching $ git fetch --prune <name> # Only prune, don't fetch $ git remote prune <name>
To prune references as part of your normal workflow without needing to remember to run that, set fetch.prune globally, or remote.<name>.prune per-remote in the config. See git-config(1).
Here's where things get tricky and more specific. The pruning feature doesn't actually care about branches, instead it'll prune local <→ remote-references as a function of the refspec of the remote (see <refspec> and CONFIGURED REMOTE-TRACKING BRANCHES above).
Therefore if the refspec for the remote includes e.g. refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*, or you manually run e.g. git fetch --prune <name> "refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*" it won't be stale remote tracking branches that are deleted, but any local tag that doesn't exist on the remote.
This might not be what you expect, i.e. you want to prune remote <name>, but also explicitly fetch tags from it, so when you fetch from it you delete all your local tags, most of which may not have come from the <name> remote in the first place.
So be careful when using this with a refspec like refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*, or any other refspec which might map references from multiple remotes to the same local namespace.
Since keeping up-to-date with both branches and tags on the remote is a common use-case the --prune-tags option can be supplied along with --prune to prune local tags that don't exist on the remote, and force-update those tags that differ. Tag pruning can also be enabled with fetch.pruneTags or remote.<name>.pruneTags in the config. See git-config(1).
The --prune-tags option is equivalent to having refs/tags/*:refs/tags/* declared in the refspecs of the remote. This can lead to some seemingly strange interactions:
# These both fetch tags $ git fetch --no-tags origin 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' $ git fetch --no-tags --prune-tags origin
The reason it doesn't error out when provided without --prune or its config versions is for flexibility of the configured versions, and to maintain a 1=1 mapping between what the command line flags do, and what the configuration versions do.
It's reasonable to e.g. configure fetch.pruneTags=true in ~/.gitconfig to have tags pruned whenever git fetch --prune is run, without making every invocation of git fetch without --prune an error.
Pruning tags with --prune-tags also works when fetching a URL instead of a named remote. These will all prune tags not found on origin:
$ git fetch origin --prune --prune-tags $ git fetch origin --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' $ git fetch <url of origin> --prune --prune-tags $ git fetch <url of origin> --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
The output of "git fetch" depends on the transport method used; this section describes the output when fetching over the Git protocol (either locally or via ssh) and Smart HTTP protocol.
The status of the fetch is output in tabular form, with each line representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
<flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> [<reason>]
The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if the --verbose option is used.
In compact output mode, specified with configuration variable fetch.output, if either entire <from> or <to> is found in the other string, it will be substituted with * in the other string. For example, master -> origin/master becomes master -> origin/*.
$ git fetch origin
The above command copies all branches from the remote refs/heads/ namespace and stores them to the local refs/remotes/origin/ namespace, unless the branch.<name>.fetch option is used to specify a non-default refspec.
$ git fetch origin +pu:pu maint:tmp
This updates (or creates, as necessary) branches pu and tmp in the local repository by fetching from the branches (respectively) pu and maint from the remote repository.
The pu branch will be updated even if it is does not fast-forward, because it is prefixed with a plus sign; tmp will not be.
$ git fetch git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git maint $ git log FETCH_HEAD
The first command fetches the maint branch from the repository at git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git and the second command uses FETCH_HEAD to examine the branch with git-log(1). The fetched objects will eventually be removed by git's built-in housekeeping (see git-gc(1)).
The fetch and push protocols are not designed to prevent one side from stealing data from the other repository that was not intended to be shared. If you have private data that you need to protect from a malicious peer, your best option is to store it in another repository. This applies to both clients and servers. In particular, namespaces on a server are not effective for read access control; you should only grant read access to a namespace to clients that you would trust with read access to the entire repository.
The known attack vectors are as follows:
Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git version.
Part of the git(1) suite