#include <stdio.h> FILE *popen(const char *command, const char *type); int pclose(FILE *stream);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
The command argument is a pointer to a null-terminated string containing a shell command line. This command is passed to /bin/sh using the -c flag; interpretation, if any, is performed by the shell. The type argument is a pointer to a null-terminated string which must contain either the letter 'r' for reading or the letter 'w' for writing. Since glibc 2.9, this argument can additionally include the letter 'e', which causes the close-on-exec flag (FD_CLOEXEC) to be set on the underlying file descriptor; see the description of the O_CLOEXEC flag in open(2) for reasons why this may be useful.
The return value from popen() is a normal standard I/O stream in all respects save that it must be closed with pclose() rather than fclose(3). Writing to such a stream writes to the standard input of the command; the command's standard output is the same as that of the process that called popen(), unless this is altered by the command itself. Conversely, reading from a "popened" stream reads the command's standard output, and the command's standard input is the same as that of the process that called popen().
Note that output popen() streams are fully buffered by default.
The pclose() function waits for the associated process to terminate and returns the exit status of the command as returned by wait4(2).
The pclose() function returns -1 if wait4(2) returns an error, or some other error is detected. In the event of an error, these functions set errno to indicate the cause of the error.
If pclose() cannot obtain the child status, errno is set to ECHILD.
The 'e' value for type is a Linux extension.
Failure to execute the shell is indistinguishable from the shell's failure to execute command, or an immediate exit of the command. The only hint is an exit status of 127.